Corona Virus (COVID - 19) is a large family of viruses that cause illness differing from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Corona virus is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. Corona virus is a zoonotic disease that is transmitted between animals and people.
Cancer term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems.
Cancer afflicts people in many parts of the body – including the breasts, lungs, colon, brain, bones, and prostate.
The stem cell theory of cancer proposes that among all cancerous cells, a few act as stem cells that reproduce themselves and sustain the cancer, much like normal stem cells normally renew and sustain our organs and tissues.
Cancer biomarkers (CB) are biomolecules produced either by the tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to the tumor, and CB could be used as screening/early detection tool of cancer, diagnostic, prognostic, or predictor for the overall outcome of a patient.
Cancer immunology is a related field of biology that deals with understanding the role of the immune system in the process and development of cancer cells.
A pathology report is a medical report that gives information about the detection of diseases, such as cancer.
The development of the diagnosis method with AI and Robotics will help to reduce the number of late-stage cancer diagnoses. Better imaging, robotics, and artificial intelligence (AI) will form part of newly developed international research to detect cancer at its earliest stage. It also aims to develop complete new strategies for detecting cancer.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. The process is characterized by changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division.
DNA changes caused by mutagens may harm cells and cause certain diseases, such as cancer.
Nanotechnology can provide rapid and sensitive detection of cancer-related molecules, enabling scientists to detect molecular changes even when they occur only in a small percentage of cells. Nanotechnology also has the potential to generate entirely novel and highly effective therapeutic agents.
Cancer genomics is currently an exciting and fast-paced topic, with advances in sequencing technologies, computational approaches and tumor models, understanding of cancer processes, and the application of new methods to studying cancer hold great promise for developing important breakthroughs in cancer treatment and prevention.
Genetic mutations play a major role in about 5 to 10 percent of all cancers. Researchers have associated mutations in specific genes with more than 50 hereditary cancer syndromes, which are disorders that may predispose individuals to develop certain cancers.
Breast cancer can occur in women and rarely in men. Symptoms of breast cancer include a lump in the breast, bloody discharge from the nipple, and changes in the shape or texture of the nipple or breast. Its treatment depends on the stage of cancer. It may consist of chemotherapy, radiation, hormone therapy, and surgery.
An oncology nurse is a specialized nurse who cares for cancer patients. These nurses require advanced certifications and clinical experiences in oncology further than the typical baccalaureate nursing program provides.
Cancer and its treatment can cause physical symptoms and side effects. They can also cause emotional, social, and financial effects. Treating these effects is called palliative care or supportive care.
Gynecologic oncology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on cancers of the female reproductive system, including ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, cervical cancer, and vulvar cancer.
Doctors often use them to treat leukemia and cancer in the breasts, ovaries, and intestines. Drugs in this group include 5-fluorouracil, 6-mercaptopurine, cytarabine, gemcitabine, and methotrexate, among many others.
X-rays, CT scans, and other diagnostic imaging procedures—all radiology techniques—are used to help locate, stage and diagnose cancers. Radiation therapy is a treatment that uses high doses of targeted energy to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.
Vaccines are medicines that help the body fight disease. They can train the immune system to find and destroy harmful germs and cells. There are also vaccines for cancer. These vaccines are used to prevent and treat cancer.
The epidemiology of cancer is the study of the factors affecting cancer. The study of cancer epidemiology uses epidemiological methods to find the cause of cancer and to identify and develop improved treatments.
Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Treatments like immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormone therapy. Clinical trials might be used to treat cancer.
Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body. Chemotherapy is most often used to treat cancer since cancer cells grow and multiply much more quickly than most cells in the body.
Cancer prevention is an action taken to lower the risk of getting cancer. This can include maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding exposure to known cancer-causing substances, and taking medicines or vaccines that can prevent cancer from developing.
A biopsy is the main way doctors diagnose most types of cancer. Other tests can suggest that cancer is present, but only a biopsy can make a diagnosis. During a biopsy, a doctor removes a small amount of tissue to examine under a microscope.
Integrative Cancer Biology & Research is cancer research encompassing preclinical, clinical, translational, molecular, epidemiological, preventive, and therapeutic aspects. Computational biologists focusing on cancer develop methods for the genome-scale characterization of tumors, on various levels of the molecular process.
A healthy and well-balanced diet that provides adequate nutrition is an important part of cancer treatment. Proper nutrition provides patients with the ability to recover between cancer treatments.
Medical oncology focuses on drug treatments for cancer including chemotherapy, hormones, and biological agents. Where Clinical oncology involves giving the drug treatments but also using radiotherapy, often as a combined approach.
Viruses causing human cancer as well as using viruses as tools to fight cancer.
The symptoms of head and neck cancers may include a lump or a sore that does not heal, a sore throat that does not go away, difficulty in swallowing, and a change or hoarseness in the voice.
Clinical trials are research studies that involve people. Through clinical trials, doctors find new ways to improve treatments and the quality of life for people with the disease.